This article focuses on the subjection of the Kazakh and Altai peoples after the Junghar subjugation by Qing China, while discussing Qing negotiations with Russia over Junghar issues.  The author, drawing from various archives in Russian, Chinese, and Manchu languages, manages to provide an overview of relations between the Russian and Qing Empires across Central Asia in the mid-eighteenth century from the both the Russian and Qing points of view.  One of the original features of the article is that the author pays close attention to the influence of the proposal made by Tosi (who commanded the Qing missions to Russia in 1731) upon negotiations held between Russia and Qing during the second half of the 1750s.  During these negotiations both empires insisted on their own prominence in Central Asia, while trying to preserve the framework formed by the 1727 treaty of Kiakhta.  Russia attempted to take extreme advantage of some concessions by the Qing government included in the proposal made by Tosi.  What is remarkable in the conclusion is the author’s suggestion of an ambiguous policy of double subjection to both the Russian and Qing empires by the Kazakhs and Altai peoples.

Hamamoto Mami, Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo
CER: I-3.4.C-307