Observing the poppy production in Afghanistan has gained a substantial push from an annual figure of 200 tons in 1979 to 4,200 tons in 2004, the author examines the appearance of new production zones in recent times (notably through the creation of irrigated oases in Helmand and Nangarhar, whilst Badakhshan was gaining the third position with major increases in the mid-2000s). H. Kreutzmann shows how drug production and trafficking, strongly linked to deteriorating state control and regional power politics, also affect the neighbouring states as consumer markets and trade routes towards the West. Most important, his study casts light on the fact that massive international investments for mainstreaming alternative development in Afghanistan do not significantly change the national production capacity.

The Redaction
CER: II-7.4.B-640