Trying to cast light on the underlying social and political configurations of the social and political dynamics in rural Uzbekistan, the author of this substantial and innovative study assumes that recent reform intensification has produced a significant shift in the patterns of these dynamics. On the basis of research conducted in Yangibozor (in the Khwarezm Region), the article addresses significant changes in the relations of power and of production. Marking a break with the prevailing vision of Uzbekistan as an polity characterised by immobility, T. Trevisani analyses the evolution of the mechanisms through which new inequalities are created ― one of the most obvious features of Central Asian campaigns for a couple of decades ― and uncovers some unsuspected dynamics creating challenges and resistance to state control. So doing, he observes that the kolkhoz ― “despite attempts to reanimate it by some scholars and some governments (p. 100)” ― has really come to an end in Uzbekistan as well as in Central Asia. Also in sharp contrast with a majority of studies in political sociology of rural Central Asia, his approach brings him to conclude that not “clans” but individuals are at the core of these mechanisms. What his research results suggest in this matter is that one can observe a switch from a system of patronage and redistributive dynamic during the kolkhoz era to a more open though no less restraining market of political protection ― in which the former controllers get closely involved in the process of production.