Assessing the sometimes paradoxical impact of international labels on the vernacular protagonists of the political field, the author evokes varied instrumentations of the term “Wahhabi” in and around Chechnya and Dagestan. M. Gammer notably observes the acceptation of this denomination by the most obscure groups, thus promoted by their opponents to the status of the West’s enemy No. 1. Such an observation on the functioning of the political market should encourage specialists to, at the same time, better assess the specific history and multiple instrumentations of the political labels on the market, and to go beyond them in their analysis of opposing political currents and forces. In the present case, a detailed history of the “Wahhabi” category, and of the role of Russia’s academic circles in its definition and adjustments since the late 1970s, remains to be done.