This book outlines the reception and development of Islam in Central Asia during the pre-modern period, viz., the formative process of Central Asian traditional Islam characterised by Hanafi Maturidism and Sufism including saint worship and the invocation for the worldly interest. The work not only reconfirms the significance of Sufism but also casts light on varied dimensions of “orthodox” Islam such as theology and jurisprudence. The author supposes that the faithful or the convert felt more strongly than the native Arab or the born Muslim did the necessity to define Islam. And he emphasises the fact that it was in Central Asia that the Islamic theology, jurisprudence, and philosophy were formulated. In addition he points out the possibility that the Islamicisation of Central Asia was promoted by the most “orthodox” Islam, especially the ideology of sacred war legitimating the invasion of nomads, rather than by the miracles of saints.