Unlike typical Naqshbandi oppositional or neutral responses to sama‘, the Khwaja lineages of Eastern Turkistan institutionalised this practice during the temporal and spiritual reign of the Sufi master Afaq Khwaja (d. 1694). The sama‘ is rigorously defended in the principal hagiography of Afaq Khwaja, the Hidayat-nama. The Khwaja legitimises singing and dancing using Sunni sources and classical Sufi texts. The text provides a unique view of sama‘ as a synthesis of mystical practice, political ceremony, and communal ritual. In the following centuries this initiation ritual became a popular cultural tradition outside of Sufi circles.