This article questions the usual thesis that transition increased income inequality. According to the authors, increase in income inequality is much lower than proclaimed for several reasons: Hidden inequality during the Soviet times and unreliable data as well as sampling problems to compute inequality ratio after transition. Pre-transition data are then severely biased in favour of apparent equality. Increased inequality could only explained by the fact that some countries have changed their economic structure, such as Kazakhstan or Turkmenistan in favour of increased hydrocarbons exports and because of the dramatic production decline. This interesting paper on this important topic would have been even more captivating with data analysis from primary sources.