The Volga Federal District created in 2000 is sometimes considered a mini-model of the Federation of Russia in terms of interethnic and inter-confessional relations. The author of the present study shortly introduces the specific history and present situation of Islam in the main ethnic groups of the region (the Tatars, the Bashkirs, and the Kazakhs), as well as among recent and numerically more reduced migrant populations (Azerbaijanis, Chechens, Avars, Lezgis, Tajiks, and Uzbeks). Figures on linguistic practice and knowledge cast light on the low level of command of Russian language among migrant populations from the Caucasus and Central Asia (in particular among Tajiks, Uzbeks, Avars, and Lezgins). Other statistics reveal the particularly weak level of interethnic marriages among the migrants as well as among the Kazakh autochthonous population; the particular sense of exposure to demonstrations of racism among Chechens, Azerbaijanis, Tajiks, and to a slightly lesser extent among Uzbeks; on the insignificant participation of all these groups in community life, with a particularly high level of ignorance about community organisations among Tajiks and Uzbeks; and on the extremely high level of religiosity (always more than 92% of believers) and of Islamic religious practice (particularly developed among the Chechens, the Avars, and the Tajiks, the second rank being occupied by Lezgis and Uzbeks). The adjectives of “stable, but complex” have been retained for qualifying the overall interethnic situation in the VFD.