Since 1997, the eastern part of Mazandaran province, comprising the sub-province of Gurgan and Gunbad-i Kawus, have been joined together to form the Gulistan (“Rose Garden”) province.  This comprises coastal wetlands; the Gurgan to Gunbad-i Kawus plain, with arid steppe lands in the north and fertile plains in the south traversed by the Gurgan and Qarasu rivers; and an inland mountainous region bordering on Khurasan and rising to an altitude of 3,750 m.  The province’s economy includes winter and summer pasture grounds, and cereal and vegetable-growing agriculture. The whole is within an earthquake zone.

C. Edmund Bosworth, University of Exeter
CER: I-2.4-151