As in the article on “Gur” in the same volume of the Encyclopaedia Iranica, C. E. Bosworth mainly gives a political history of the city, including dynastic changes, with a focus on the pre-Mongol period, everything later than that being relegated to the last paragraph.   The particular position of Gurgan as a region where nomadic-sedentary interactions are vital is rightly emphasised; the region was seen as a frontier against the Trans-Caspian steppes from antiquity until the Safavid period and even later; the region around Gurgan and Astarabad (called Mazandaran in the sources of the Mongol and Timurid periods) offered some of the best winter pastures available in Eastern Iran and Central Asia.

Jürgen Paul, Martin Luther University, Halle
CER: I-3.4.A-251