The Hindu Kush (the name is first attested in the Arab traveller Ibn Battuta, c. 1330) comprises the south-western range of the great middle and southern Asiatic mountain ganglion running in the east from the Karakoram in modern northern Pakistan to the mountains of central Afghanistan in the west, with peaks rising to 7,700 m in height.   Numerous north-south passes cross it.  The sparse population lives mainly in the valleys, where intensive, irrigated agriculture is possible, but inadequate resources mean that there is much seasonal emigration to lands outside the Hindu Kush.  Ethnically and linguistically, the population includes Nuristanis, Dardic peoples like the Pasha’is, and Iranians like Persians and incoming Pashtun nomads.

C. Edmund Bosworth, University of Exeter
CER: I-2.4-135