The authors reconstruct three different phases of the development of Turkey’s land transportation infrastructures since the early twentieth century. Over the course of integration of the Ottoman Empire into the world economy railways played a crucial role. This incorporation entailed a process of decline along with the loss of territories and political independence. The Republic’s efforts for completing its railway network were followed after WWII by a long period of emphasis given to road networks, the development of which was encouraged by the demand-oriented traditional view. Transport investment became the engine of economic growth in Turkey. However, underline the authors, problems occurred when as an increasing need for road transportation and import-dependent industries failed to keep up with demands.