The article studies the different types of literature from Central Asia from the interwar period as a source for the political history of the region, in particular, from the viewpoint of inter-community relations within the USSR as well as those concerning the Islamic world. The period under study here goes from 1924 with the carving up of Central Asia according to ethno-territorial divisions realized under the aegis of Stalin, up to 1936 with the purges and liquidation of all alternative modes of thought. Uzbek literature of those years brings to the fore the permanence of a political Turkish-Islamic identity, the redefinition of inter-community relations (between Muslims and non-Muslims) and, in a more general way, the revitalisation of Muslim liberalism. These questions are treated through the study of Chulpan’s (1897-1938) prose. His work, from 1924 until his death, is dominated by two central ideas: the political solidarity of Turkish and Muslim people in the ex-Russian Empire as well as the continuation by the Soviet regime in Central Asia of the politics of territorial plundering and economic segregation carried out by the colonial administration under the last Romanovs.