Through late-eighteenth to early-twentieth-century Chinese gazetteers from Xinjiang, the author endeavours to demonstrate that Islam practiced by Uighurs in the region was “less adequate than authentic Islam [. . .], at least as it originated from Arabia.” Contemporary Islam in Xinjiang is presented as a “syncretism” of varied historical faiths (including Judaism. . .). It is indeed a pity that a rare access to early modern Chinese primary sources has given way to such poor observations. Historians of Islam in Xinjiang will retain the interest of pioneering research locations in a corpus of sometimes poorly accessible Chinese primary sources.