The author proposes a reflection on the characteristics and genesis of the silversmith’s trade in the Jöchid Ulus. Using examples of archaeological discoveries already studied by James Watt, he offers a different approach on the ethnic background of these works, attributing their paternity to the Khitans and Jürchens rather than to the Chinese as advocated by Watt. He is particularly interested in patterns on belts. A first set consisting of a deer and a landscape leads M. Kramarovsky to connect the discoveries made on the Golden Horde’s territories with other Central Asian treasures. However, dragons with three claws as shown on some belts, as well as a vast panel of objects among which cups, have a Chinese, Sung origin. M. Kramarosky explains that the resumption of these symbols is a consequence of the foundation of a new military institution of 1206, with the creation of a military aristocracy in search of distinctive symbols. So doing, M. Kramarovky suggests that early Jöchid luxury metalwork was inspired by Central Asian cultures, closer to the codes of the people gathered under the banner of Chinggisid Mongols. According to him, Batu’s initial conquests contributed to diffuse models in the territories of the young Golden Horde. Only Islamicisation and the settlement of part of the Golden Horde, partially due to the separation from the Yeke Mongol Ulus, offered new codes, which led to the formation of the Golden Horde’s culture and art.
Florent Souris, Practical School of Advanced Studies, Paris