After the publication, notably in Kazan, of a series of memoirs and autobiographies by Tatar emigrants from the mainly Kazakh-peopled Tarbaghatay area of north-western Xinjiang, this richly illustrated and skilfully published monograph offers an historical study of the development of Tatar school education and written culture in western China in the first half of the twentieth century. Following a similar publication by the same author ten years ago in Urumchi ― cf. Central Eurasian Reader 1 (2008): review Nr. 345, pp. 287-8 ―, this version remains focused of the development of Tatar ‘Jadid’ teaching institutions in Xinjiang, and on the role of Xinjiang Tatars in the diffusion of this system to the other Turkic-speaking Muslim peoples of the region, mainly Kazakhs and Kyrgyz. Opened with a short chapter on the history of Tatar culture in the Volga region, then in Xinjiang, the author’s narrative continues with an evocation of the school question among the Muslim peoples of the Russian Empire, and of the development of modernised Muslim school education in Xinjiang during the first half of the twentieth century, with particular attention to periods of large autonomy or independence from Beijing or Nanjing. A special chapter (189-225), illustrated by photographic portraits, is devoted to the biographies of present-day Tatar intellectuals in Xinjiang.