On the basis of a variety of primary (mainly biographical and autobiographical) and secondary sources, the author first evokes the historical role of rural and suburban madrasas in European Russia from the mid-eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. He provides a number of biographical elements (borrowed from Riza al-Din Fakhr al-Din’s Athar) on the main mudarrises of the time (notably those of the village of Machkara, in the uezd of Kazan, present-day Kukmor district of Tatarstan, from the late 1750s onwards), and on their Bukharan background. The article also provides short descriptions of the history of seven prominent urban madrasas of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the Volga-Ural Region, classified by their dates of foundation: the Apanay and Marjaniyya of Kazan, already active in the second fourth of the nineteenth century, followed by more recent foundations: the Muhammadiyya of Kazan, the Husayniyya of Orenburg, the Rasuliyya of Troitsk, the ‘Uthmaniyya and ‘Aliyya of Ufa, with the addition of a paragraph on the Bubi Madrasa of the Izh-Bub’ia village (uezd of Sarapul, governorate of Viatka, present-day Agyz district of the Republic of Tatarstan). For each, the author provides data on their date of foundation and/or reform, on their history, on the content of their teaching programmes, on their teaching staff and numbers of students, as well as the latter’s geographical origins. Overall conclusions are sketched on the contrasted impact of the reform movement of the late nineteenth century (and on its failure, for instance, in Marjani’s lifetime), on the reformed madrasas’ influence on the religious personnel of Islam during the late Tsarist and early Soviet period, and on their relatively weak audience among social classes like the Muslim bourgeoisie and aristocracy.