The author evokes the gnostic trend in nineteenth-century literary bilingualism (dhu’l-lisanaynlik), Turkic and Persian, in the Kokand school of diwan poetry, through the works of Muhammad-Riza Akhund-ughli ‘Muhi’ (Qandahar, 1835–Andijan, 1911).  The formal and thematic influence of classical or contemporary poets like Fuzuli, Bidil and Muqimi (Muhi’s fellow madrasa student) is noticed with precision through typological comparison (with special interest in Muhi’s imitation of the classical hamd, na‘t and munajat genres in ghazal form, of Fuzuli’s and Bidil’s tatabbu‘, nazira and mukhammas, and of Muqimi’s radifs and subjects—see for instance their parallel hajw on a certain Asrarqul, or Muhi’s satire of Mulla Sa‘at-Jan).

The Redaction
CER: I-6.3.C-594