Examining the influence of the Ulus of Jöchi on the structuring and formation of Muscovy, the author observes that all its inheritors have been gradually integrated by the Russian state between the sixteenth and the eighteenth century. Questioning the notions of ‘Oriental despotism’ and ‘Oriental mentality’ as they are promoted or discussed in works by prominent Western scholars (notably in K. Wittfogel, Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power, New York, 1959; and G. Hosking, Russia: People and Empire, 1552-1917, London, 1998), he classically insists on the fact that it is the conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan in the mid-sixteenth century that deeply modified the ethnic and confessional structure of Russia’s population, and contributed to the country’s transformation into “an empire of non-European type.”

The Redaction
CER: II-3.2.B-163