The article is devoted to the issue of the emergence and development of civil society and of the third sector in Tajikistan. A well-known Tajikistani civil society expert, Sh. Karimov has been directly engaged since the 1990s in the promotion of the third sector. He regards civil society in Tajikistan as one of the main ‘oppositions’ to the so called ‘excessive centralisation’ of power. He describes the specifics of the Tajik civil society that, in his opinion, is due mostly to the civil war and to the post-conflict syndrome. Special attention is given to the question of social partnership and interrelations between the Tajik civil society sector and the state. The social partnership is ensured by the fact that the society is facing acute social problems the solution of which requires the active involvement of civic organisations. On the other hand, the author analyses the impact of the ‘colour revolutions’ phenomenon on the relationship between government and civil society in Tajikistan. He considers the role of civil society in the promotion of political culture among the country’s population, this newly acquired political culture playing a significant role in the prevention of instability. Generally speaking the author pays less attention to the historical background of the issue (the conditions and terms of the emergence of a civil society) than to the current issues and challenges that the local civil society is facing. The reading of this article will show useful for a variety of readers ranging from political practitioners to social and political science experts specially interested in the problems of ‘emerging democracies’.