Marina N. Makarova is Doctor of Philosophy, chair of the Faculty of Sociology and Philosophy of the Udmurt State University (Izhevsk, Russia). In the present article, she tackles the sociological issue raised by processes of recruiting and training of workers in the industrial companies of the Udmurt Republic. During the Soviet period this region was a big industrial centre specialising in productions for the military-industrial complex, mechanical engineering and metallurgy. On the basis of statistical data the author states that the employment situation in Udmurtia is one of the most difficult among all regions of the Federation of Russia. Based on local material, her analysis shows the deep consequences of economic (recession and the reconversion of military industry) and social-demographic change (the reduction of salaries in industry, the loss of their social guaranties by workers, the fall of birth rate) that Russia had to face in the 1990s. The fall of workers’ prestige among the youth and the aging of highly qualified staff are typical tendencies in contemporary Russia. As a result, several branches of industry face lack of qualified personnel. Considering the shortage of qualified staff on the labour market, the author ends her analysis in concrete recommendations, considering an absolute necessity to implement cardinal reforms of the professional training system in the Federation of Russia.