The author focuses on the Republic of Tatarstan in order to assess the opportunities and limits posed by the practices of paradiplomacy for the development of distinct regional identity in Russia.  If during the period of uncertainty in the federal centre in the early 1990s, the greater international exposure did add prestige and influence to Tatarstan’s government at home, nonetheless with the consolidation of the Russian state under President Putin, Tatarstan’s paradiplomacy lost its initial symbolic significance.  The republic pursued various paths of engagement with the external world, not limited to the Muslim direction and often emphasising European orientation.  However, and as a conclusion, the author considers that the domestic (Russian) politics and the developments of the federal-level political regime appear more consequential for the fate of the Russian regions.  As she soundly suggests, sub-national involvement in international policy-making does not pose a threat of disintegration for Russia.

Françoise Daucé, University of Clermont-Ferrand
CER: I-8.2-705