The present book is devoted to the political history of the Muslim communities of the Russian Empire at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This period can be characterised by a revival of the cultural life of these populations, notably through penetration of European thought, as well as by the complex situation of the Muslim peoples during the first revolution of Russia in 1905-7. It is not a coincidence if this work raised interest at the same time among historians and of specialists of Turkic studies. Its author has endeavoured to shed a crude light on the non-historically based character of the issue of pan-Turkism and pan-Islamism. According to the author, one of the reasons of the failure of the revolution is the lack of support of the Muslim populations of the empire, and their lack of a sense of solidarity with the classes of Russian society which were struggling against autocracy. The author provides a critical survey of existing literature, insisting on the neglect of many sources on the role of Muslim populations in an Orthodox state in significant part of existing literature. From this viewpoint his work can be considered a contribution to the revaluation of the role and place of Muslim communities of the Russian Empire, contrasting with the ignorance or hostility of a number of historical works on the considered period of history.