Two scholars from the Arya International University of Yerevan embark on a global interpretation of phallic objects used as tombstones in the cemetery of Onar, in the region of Ardabil (Eastern Azerbaijan, Iran). Their rather minimalistic and poorly documented conclusions are that such kind of tradition may have locally existed in the pre-Islamic period; that adjustment to the Islamic period was granted by Arabic inscriptions and the carving of twelve lines in the dervish caps that top them ― symbolising the Twelve Imams of Shiite Islam. No effort, even minimal, has been made at a comparative typological study of this material with other, analogous monumental ensembles in the Caucasus and in the Turkmen steppe, richly documented by archaeological and historical studies in Persian and other languages.

The Redaction
CER: II-6.3.B-496