Noticing the discrepancies in the respective GDPs of oil and gas producers and other Central Asian countries, the author insists on the former’s ― especially Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan’s ― tendency to seek for cooperation outside of Central Asia. She also observes that the current stakeholders, especially in Turkmenistan, are likely to continue to support existing economic policy and trade regimes, to the expense of diversification and regional cooperation. Perspectives are suggested however, as far as Turkmenistan is concerned, in field like the struggle against drug trafficking and terrorism, because programmes for addressing such issues are financed by foreign countries. At the same time, the author concludes that unless there is a major incident involving a highly dangerous disease, there is not much potential for regional cooperation on public health issues.

The Redaction
CER: II-7.4.F-673