This article deals with the change of historical research on Xinjiang after the turning point of the early 1980s. Research work in China proper are precisely evoked through the content of several major collective publications, through the discovery and utilisation of new historical materials, through the rehabilitation of some historical figures (such as native feudal lords of the first half of the twentieth century), and the early stage of the historical study of post-wwii history. The second half of the article deals with research trends in Japan, through its main themes: the general history of Xinjiang, the administration of the Qing dynasty, studies on Turki literature, the history of nationalism and national movements in Xinjiang, with a final paragraph on “mazars and bazars”. A short last chapter overviews Xinjiang historical studies throughout the world (works by Kim Ho-Dong, Thierry Zarcone, Isenbike Togan, Andrew D. W. Forbes, Linda Benson, Ingvar Svanberg). The absence of a final bibliography is largely compensated by extremely detailed footnotes.