In this richly documented article, the authors endeavour to demonstrate that attempts to prove the legitimacy of the dhikr-i jahr and sama‘ have been undertaken by authors in Transoxiana with persistence over a long period of time, though it was also constantly subjected to the criticism of traditional theologians and those Sufi shaykhs who preferred the dhikr-i khafi. The zenith of these assaults was reached under the reign of Emir of Bukhara Shah Murad (1785-1800), who encouraged several shaykhs from the Mujaddidiyya community in their effort to prohibit jahr. After Anke von Kügelgen, the authors cast light on Shah Murad’s struggle against the rites of the Yasawiyya (or Kubrawiyya, or ‘Ishqiyya), but also on the reaction of Jahri masters, notably through the works written by Yasawi author Shaykh Khudaydad b. Mulla Tash-Muhammad for the defence and illustration of the dhikr-i jahr. The relative tolerance of the early nineteenth century under emir Haydar Khan is presented as the result of the efforts by some Sufi authors who had laid the foundation for justification of quite a number of “doubtful” Sufi traditions and ritual practice. See also on the same subject: Babadzhanov B. M., “Zikr dzhahr u bratstv Tsentral’noi Azii: diskusii, tipologiia, vozrozhdenie [The dhikr-i jahr in Central Asia: Debates, Typology, Rebirth],” Pax Islamica (Kazan) 2009/1: 105-25.

The Redaction
CER: II-4.3.D-399