Based on secondary sources, written in a strictly apologetic and patriotic mood characteristic of academic literature produced for almost two decades in Uzbekistan, this article evokes in general terms the history of settlement and culture in Marghilan, from the city’s origins to the present. A distressed picture of the destructions of the Arabic conquest is followed by the mention of Marghilan’s appearance in eleventh-century chronicles as the capital of a Qarakhanid appanage, and of the development of Sufism in the following centuries. Another key moment of the city’s history is its resistance, under the leadership of its religious leader ‘Azim Khwaja, against the Emir of Bukhara Nasr-Allah. Several paragraphs are devoted to the mediaeval and early modern architectural history of the city, with special interest in the mosques (of Khwaja Parsa, for instance) and madrasas (of the Qazi al-Quzat and of Sayyid Ahmad Khwaja, in particular) constructed in the nineteenth century. The last paragraphs trace the development of textile industry under Tsarist administration. They also evoke the city’s uprising under Madamin Bek against the early Soviet administration in late February 1918. The author applies to the period of independence the same criteria according to which the history of the Soviet period was written till recent years—i.e., through the idea of a continuous progress of economy and culture.