The article gives an outline of the main features of the scientific and technological development in Central Asia during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The author focuses on the history of the research institutions established during this period of time. His description is confined to Western modern sciences, and does not cover vernacular traditional sciences and techniques. However the article covers a vast geographical area with paragraphs on Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, the North Indian regions of Kashmir and Punjab, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. Similar features are obviously to be found especially among the countries that were part of the Soviet Union. For each country, the author analyses the trends of the main statistic indicators—such as the Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and development to Gross Domestic Product and the figures of the brain drain that has become an important issue for several of these countries.