Through the examination of bekhalfas and bakhshis as practitioners and representatives of popular rites, with special interest in the Bibi Seshanba and Bibi Mushkil Kushod, the author suggests that women’s ritual symbolism is often informed and orientated by its own systems of ideas. If dominant features may be integrated or added to it, they do not have to change or determine meanings in a one-sided process. Through ritual practices varied patterns of self-understanding can be identified and reinforced. Implicit expressions reveal the women’s own way of understanding, and may even sometimes hide feelings of strength.

The Redaction
CER: II-6.4.G-552