In an unimaginative mood, this very short paper underlines the presence of varied Russia-based leftist parties (Mensheviks and SRs, in particular) in Ura-Teppa as soon as 1906, and the uprisings of the 1910s against the ancient order (mentioning the violent seizure of waqfs by cultivators in the villages of Itarchi, Muchun, Hajji Qishlaq, and ‘Anbargiz). The aftermath of the February 1917 Revolution is illustrated by the creation of a Council of Soldiers’ Deputies, of the Detachment of the Russian People, and of the Shura-yi Islamiyya party. As in the Soviet era, no attention is given neither to political parties other than the Social-Democrats, nor to local reform and modernisation movement of this decisive period.

Stéphane A. Dudoignon, National Centre for Scientific Research, Paris
CER: II-3.4.D-298