The author introduces the emergence of the Mongol Empire in Eurasia as a phenomenon that brought about a rupture with previous imperial entities with Mongolian origins like, respectively, the empires of the Xiongnu (third century BCE–fourth century CE), of the Turks (seventh–ninth centuries) and of the Uighurs (744-840).  M. Biran examines the impact of the Mongol Empire on Eurasia according to three principal aspects.  In the first part, entitled “The Mongols and the Inner Asian Tradition: Evolution versus Revolution (pp. 340-8),” she shows how the Mongols were in contact with sedentary countries, in particular through Muslim merchants, and the profit that they have received from these contacts in matters of administration.  In the second part, “Integration on a Eurasian Scale (pp. 348-53)”, the author casts light on the ways of the Mongols’ integration in this geographic area, notably in the field of religion (p. 353).  The paper’s third part (“The Mongols and the Eurasian Geo-Political Balance,” pp. 353-8) resituates the influence of the Mongol Empire at an “international” scale, through the empire’s role in the transfer of technologies between East and West.  The conclusion is devoted to the heritage of the Mongol Empire in Eurasia.  This well-documented and well-argued paper benefits from Michal Biran’s wide and deep erudition in the field of Central Eurasian studies.

Denise Aigle, EPHE, Paris
CER: I-3.1.B-166