This study argues that Kazakhstan has been following a multi-vector foreign policy in relation to the geopolitics of exporting oil from this landlocked region. The pragmatism of Kazakhstan’s leadership has allowed only a limited role for national identity and in the making of its foreign policy, putting forward the necessity of keeping good relations with Russia and China as well as the USA and the EU as counterbalancing partners. From the viewpoint of inner policy, the author suggests that the ‘clan’ balancing strategy has prevented the emergence of domestic political interests as a strong influence on foreign policy, whilst the latter was showing instrumental in bolstering the president’s personal prestige in the international community.

The Redaction
CER: II-7.4.C-646