This article explores the impact of the drug trade on security and stability in Tajikistan, with interest on its influence on territory, populations, institutions, and the very idea of the state. Among different types of threat, the author identifies addiction and drug-related diseases, as well as the military threat manifested ― as in the whole Middle East ― by the ever growing merger of crime and terror, and economic and political threats resulting from a criminalised economy and political system. The author notably observes that the combination of armed violence and drugs has negative consequences for Tajikistan’s relations with its neighbours, mainly Uzbekistan. The criminalisation of Tajikistan’s state machinery, at the highest level of the state, is at the core of the relationship between the drug trade and the country’s national security. Resources are systematically re-oriented from their real purpose and, as a result, it is the functionality of the state that is permanently and durably undermined.