This second edition reprints without addition the volume published in 1369  by the same editor. The book is an encyclopaedic compendium (not to say a miscellany) of information on Turkmen human geography, regional history, and folklore. The first chapter provides statistical and historical data on the Mazandaran region in general and on Astarabad in particular. Chapter 2 outlines the human and natural geography of the region, with a short but interesting sketch of Turkmen fishing activities on the Caspian Sea. Chapter 3 brings together various data on fauna and hunting. Chapter 4 provides a patchwork of data related to the history of the Turkmen, from ancient times to the present, along with demographical figures on the various Turkmen groups. Chapter 5 is devoted to language and literature, with some hints on material culture and social organisation. Chapter 6 focuses on religious believes and various aspects of material culture (food, clothing, ornaments). Chapter 7 deals with horse breeding and horse folklore. As a whole, the book feels like a hotchpotch of aggregated content rather than a consistent study. On some topics, though, the author has obviously had access to rare archival materials, which makes the present potpourri worth of consideration.