This article is devoted to the problem of women education in Russia, its title being borrowed from an early twentieth-century Tatar teacher and poetess, Mahruy Muzaffar. It is based on a wide set of primary sources from central and local archives, with reproduction of some documents from the National Archive of Tatarstan. (For example: “Position about the Establishment at the Imperial University of Kazan of a Section of Obstetrics for Schoolgirls” [July 30, 1859]. According to this document, the listeners should be from every estate, and no younger than twenty; certificates of christening and of orderly behaviour were to be attached to demands for enrolment.) The article describes the stages of the development of women education in and around Kazan. In the city’s university, women admission to lectures was connected with the action by P. F. Lesgaft, a professor of anatomy, and by a number of female activists. Among the latter, the author notably casts light on Rakiya Shaikhattarovna Kutlubaeva (1880-1966), one of the 318 schoolgirls of the University of Kazan in 1906, who had entered the Women’s Medical Institute of St. Petersburg in 1904. The mother of two, she then worked as a doctor in Kazan, later in Ufa, where she became an Honoured Doctor of the Bashkir ASSR, and finished her career as a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The article is enriched with the publication of photographic portraits from the author’s personal archive.