This short historical overview of viniculture and viticulture in the Turfan depression evokes the development of both techniques since the Han period and the first developments of Buddhism in the region. These innovations were linked with Han presence western in Central Asia where viticulture was being developed under Hellenistic influence. Through mainly Chinese narrative sources of different periods of time, the author, a specialist of cross-cultural trade in ancient and mediaeval China at the College of New Jersey, observes the continuation of alcohol consumption over centuries despite its successive ban by Buddhism, Manichaeism, and Islam, and retraces the participation of Buddhist monasteries in the development of wine-making process. Among the references that could have been mentioned in the bibliography of this article, one can insert the substantial articles by Eric Trombert, “La vigne et le vin en Chine [Vineyards and Wine in China],” 1: “Misères et succès d’une tradition allogène [Failures and Successes of a Non-Native Tradition],” Journal asiatique 289/2 (2001): 285-327; 2: “Vin, vigne et viticulteurs à Turfan [Wine, Vineyards and Winegrowers in Turfan],” ibid. 290/2 (2002): 485-563.