This is a short notice on the two groups of “Five Mas”, each led by five mutually related Muslim warlords, that dominated Northwest China during the Republican period.  Most were Old Teaching (laojiao) traditionalists, more sinicised than New Teaching (xinjao) reformists, though they introduced Western sciences into Islamic education.  Some promoted a tentative Islamic-Confucian synthesis in order to stimulate Muslim integration into Han society.

The Redaction
CER: I-3.5.C-344