Reviews

Through Muhammad-Salih Khwaja’s Ta’rikh-i jadida-yi Tashkand, through statistical data provided in 1876 by N. A. Maev and by the Tturkestanskie vedomosti, through information conveyed in late nineteenth and early twentieth-century reports by Russian observers (F. M. Kerenskii , N. Mallitskii, K. K. Pahlen, A. N. Dobrosmyslov, V. P. Nalivkin, S. Graminskii), and through as-usually-non-described materials from the Central State Archive of Uzbekistan (fund 47, list 1, file 1148), the author sketches the size, economic situation and activity of the twenty-one madrasas registered in the city of Tashkent at the end of the nineteenth century.  The specific data provided by the Ta’rikh-i jadida are summarised as follows:  (1) a distinction between a majority of independent institutions and a limited number of madrasas built near the tomb of some great figure (the Baraq Khan, Yunus Khan, Nur-Muhammad Qushbigi’s Madrasas—the latter built in 1832 near the grave of Zangi Ata) ; (2) elements for the description of some particular madrasas : the Baraq Khan (built around the tenth-century grave of Qaffal Shashi, ruined several times by successive earthquakes and several times heavily restored in the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries), Biklar Bigi (constructed in 1838-40, the most important madrasa of Tashkent in the late nineteenth century according to varied local and foreign testimonies), Khwaja Ahrar (on the city’s Rigistan), Kukaldash (in the daha of Besh-Aghach), Ishan-Qul Dadkhwah (or Shaykhantahur, on the city’s ‘mainstreet [Katta-kucha]’), Qasim-Bay Qara-Tuti (founded in 1871 in the gudhar of Mughul-kucha), Mahmud Dasturkhwanchi (created in 1833 in the Digrizlar neighbourhood), Muy-i Mubarak (built in 1857, parly preserved in side the Tilla-Shaykh Mosque, during many years the teaching place of the former Mufti Ziya al-Din Khan Babakhan’s grandfather ‘Abd al-Majid Khan Ishan), etc.  The study of the Ta’rikh-i jadida-yi Tashkand notably allows the author of the present paper to discuss the usually admitted dating of some madrasa constructions (for instance in the cases of the madrasas of Abu’l-Qasim Khan and of ‘Isa Khwaja Qazi-Kalan), the dates provided by Muhammad-Salih Khwaja being most of the time sentisively later than those available in archive materials.  The same source also contains useful information on the identity of the mudarrises active in the mentioned teaching institutions, on the latter’s destructions and repairs (in particular by local governors like Lashkar Qushbigi, Nur-Muhammad Qushbigi, Qana‘at Ataliq, Ahmad Qushbigi), and on their respective mortmain deeds (waqf-namas) and incomes (allowing a classification of the most richly endowed institutions—by decreasing order : the Khwaja Ahrar, Biglar Bigi, Ishan-Qul Dadkhwah, Baraq Khan, Mahmud Dasturkhanchi, Shukur Khan, ‘Abd al-Qasim Ishan, and Buri Khwaja).

Stéphane A. Dudoignon, National Centre for Scientific Research, Paris
CER: I-5.3.D-492